Skills

Levels

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Types of Subjects and Objects

    Single words

    Article + Noun

    Adjective(s) + Noun

    Noun + relative clause

    Gerunds

    Infinitives

    Noun clauses


    Dogs, water, Jeffery

    The teacher, a cat, some ice

    A big, black spider

    The man who lives there

    Skiing

    To sing

    Whatever you do

Functions

    As Subjects





    As Objects




    As Complements


    A dog is a man's best friend.

    Whatever you do is up to you.

    Skiing is believing.


    He ate ten apples.

    I like to eat.


    Mr. Trump is my friend.

    That is the man (whom) I told you about.

As Objects of prepositions*

    I don't approve of John.

    I don't approve of singing.

    I don't approve of John's singing.

    I don't approve of John's singing love songs.

    I don't approve of whatever John does.


    (the person)

    (the action)

    (gerund's subject is possessive)

    (S gerund Obj.)

    (noun clause)

*Be careful. Only gerunds (not infinitives) can be used as objects of prepositions.

    I look forward to Spring.

    I look forward to your party.

    I look forward to seeing you.


    Prep. + Object

    Prep. + Object

    Prep. + Gerund

    (In this case, "to" is a preposition, not part of an infinitive.)

    I want to see you.

    I hope to see you.

    I enjoy seeing you.

    I avoid seeing you.

    I'm interested in seeing you.

    I'm tired of seeing you.

    I am accustomed to seeing you.

    S V to V (infinitive)


    S V Ving (gerund)


    Prep + gerund

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